Zero Install

the antidote to app-stores


Oct 2016
0install 2.12 released. This is mainly code cleanups and improvements to the build. A minor caching bug, which resulted in some unnecessary extra work being done, was fixed.
Apr 2016
0install 2.11 for Windows released, with a new installer, support for .tar.xz archives, and some bug fixes. The OCaml code can now be built easily on Windows, using the new OPAM support.
Mar 2016
0install 2.11 released, with support for the latest PackageKit API, a way to specify a particular version by ID (for tools) and a change to ZEROINSTALL_PORTABLE_BASE to be compatible with the Windows version. Some bugs were fixed, including an error if the user had a ~/bin directory in PATH but the directory didn't exist.
0install 2.10 for Windows released, including new "0install store add-dir / remove-dir / export" commands and use of the OCaml solver (removing the old embedded Python solver and reducing the download size by over 50%).
Feb 2016
The Windows version of 0install can now use the new OCaml solver.
Nov 2015
0install 2.10 released. This has several bug fixes and improvements for OS X, including support for finding the native make and Java 8 packages. The diagnostics now provide detailed information about why a feed was missing (didn't download, was empty, error from PackageKit, missing DBUS support, etc).
Sep 2015
0install 2.9 and 2.9.1 released, adding a "0install select --may-compile" option and some bug fixes. Our Travis tests now also test on OS X and, as a result, our test-suite now passes there. There's also another effort to get the 0install Homebrew formula approved. 0install 2.9 for Windows was released, with many new features. 0template 0.3 was released, adding Windows support.
Aug 2015
0publish 0.25 released, with Windows support and an XML namespacing fix. 0repo 0.4 released - new features include searching in the catalogue, a "0repo serve" command to test locally, and Windows support.
Jul 2015
0install 2.8.1 and 2.8.2 for Windows released with some minor bug fixes. 0publish 0.15 released, adding Windows support.
Jun 2015
0install 2.8 for Windows released. Changes: improve updating of stale feeds, automatically close running applications when removing them from the implementation cache, OneGet integration, more detailed --verbose console output, and many small tweaks and bugfixes.
Apr 2015
Version 2.7.2 for Windows released. This adds "auto-start" and "send-to" access points, "--add-standard" and "--add-all" options, "0install import-apps", a "--background" option to activate the tray icon, and a fix for the Could not find "implementation-dirs error.
Feb 2015
The --may-compile feature is now merged. This means that the 0install solver can now find selections that require first compiling some of the components. This should be useful for people writing build tools (such as 0compile).
Jan 2015
2014 was a busy year for 0install. We released 0install 2.6, completing the port from Python to OCaml, added a JSON API to allow other programs to use 0install easily, split the Debian package into separate 0install and 0install-core packages to make using it easy on headless servers, and refactored the solver (allowing support for dependencies on source code). Work is currently continuing on moving 0compile's autocompile feature into 0install itself, which should make working with source code much easier. The Windows version also saw many new features - see for details.
Dec 2014
0install 2.8 released, adding support for dependencies on source code (e.g. for header files), for selecting a source and binary implementation of the same interface (e.g. for a compiler that compiles itself), and for using credentials from .netrc (for protected repositories). The updates to the solver are described in the blog post Simplifying the Solver With Functors. A maintenance release of the old Python version - 0install 2.3.4 - adds support for SNI certificate verification and local file references from local feeds. 0compile 1.4 was released, adding support for "pin-components" (makes the resulting binary depend on a similar version of the source), and "if-0install-version" (useful if you want 0compile to see an element, but generate a plain "if-0install-version" attribute in the generated binary feed).
Nov 2014
0install gained support for source dependencies (where one program depends on the source code to another). The OPAM OCaml package manager is now available through 0install, as described in the Binary distribution with 0install blog post, which also explains how to publish software using 0template.
Oct 2014
0install 2.6.7 for Windows was released (bugfixes and performance improvements), as well as 0template 0.2 - new features include support for Windows and <recipe>s. The solver code has been refactored (see the Simplifying the Solver with Functors blog post for details), which should make it easier to understand and more flexible. In particular, it can now support building a compiler with a build dependency on an earlier version of the same compiler. Finally, here's a video of a short Introduction to 0install talk from OCaml 2014.
Sep 2014
Lots of progress on auto compilation support in 0install. This allows 0install to compile missing dependencies from source automatically (previously, this required getting and running 0compile).
Aug 2014
There's a new 0bootstrap-php service for creating installation scripts for Windows and Unix for users who don't want to learn about 0install before installing something. The bug reporting tool now offers hints for common problems. Work has started on a queuing service to support 0repo repositories for groups (where multiple developers can submit new packages to a shared repository and have them imported by a service).
Jul 2014
0compile gains support for a "pin-components" attribute, to say that a source implementation can build against different versions of a library, but whichever version is picked, the resulting binary must run with a similar version (e.g. same major.minor components). The Python to OCaml: Retrospective blog post looks back at the now-complete porting work.
Jun 2014
0install 2.7 released. This contains lots of minor fixes and code cleanups, better binary compatibility (we no longer depend on OpenSSL and don't require GLib unless the GUI is used). Installation on Windows is now much simpler and "0install select" should be working correctly there (unpacking archives requires a .NET helper, however). A new Generic OS X application bundle template for 0install applications makes it easy to create an installer for OS X users who don't already have 0install.
May 2014
In Debian, the old zeroinstall-injector package has been replaced by separate 0install and 0install-core packages. The 0install-core package doesn't include the GTK GUI, which is very useful on headless servers because it doesn't pull in the whole GUI stack. 0install 2.6 for Windows was released. There are now NuGet packages, allowing 3rd party .NET developers to integrate Zero Install functionality into their applications. There's a new 0install Homebrew package for OS X users.
Apr 2014

0install 2.4, 2.5 and 2.5.1 for Windows released: new support for CAB and MSI archives, '0store verify' and '0store audit' now offer to automatically remove damaged implementations, new '0store purge' command removes all implementations from the cache (useful when uninstalling, manual deleting is difficult due to ACLs), new '0install central' command opens the main GUI (same as ZeroInstall.exe), fixed extraction of TAR archives with long path names. Work has also started on integrating the new OCaml solver with the .NET code.

We've been working to make the new OCaml binary more portable by using dlopen to access libssl, disabling GLib integration until the GTK plugin is actually used, and testing ocurl's new Lwt support.

The new 0install JSON API is now documented.

Mar 2014
0install 2.6.1 and 2.6.2 were released, allowing building byte-code for systems without a native OCaml compiler and fixing a bug on RPM-based systems handling distribution packages with very large version numbers. There are now Arch and Fedora packages of the new OCaml version, though the Debian package is still stuck in NEW.
Feb 2014
0install 2.6 released, completing the Python to OCaml transition. 0repo 0.3 released (0repo provides an easy way to manage the software you publish, generating the files needed to upload to your web-server). Brian Shannon has created a Marketplace web-app and is looking for feedback.
Jan 2014
0install 2.6-rc1 released. 0install 2.6 completes the transition from Python to OCaml. There is no remaining Python code in 0install and, therefore, no need to have Python installed in order to build or run it. However, there are some problems using the GTK plugin on OS X - see the thread for details. There's also another blog post in my series for people wanting to get up to speed on OCaml: Polymorphism for Beginners.
Dec 2013

Bastian Eicher announced the NEW Zero Install Publishing Tools, which has a feed editor with a split screen with graphical and XML view, plus a wizard for creating new feeds.

All the remaining non-GUI code in 0install has now been migrated to OCaml. This means that on headless servers you don't need to have Python installed in order to use (the Git version of) 0install! See the Asynchronous Python vs OCaml blog post for the latest technical details of the port. The next step is to migrate the GTK GUI.

Nov 2013
0install 2.5 released, continuing the work of porting the code to OCaml (17,000 lines of code now). The main remaining tasks at this point are the GUI and the native package-manager integration. For these, the OCaml code still falls back to using the old Python code. See the Porting progress thread for details.
Oct 2013
0install 2.4 released. The main new feature is that a large amount of code (more than 10,000 lines) has been converted from Python to OCaml, giving a large (~10x) speedup in many cases. New features include local paths in <file> elements (useful for testing things locally) and tab-complation for 0launch. For people wanting to work on it, see this overview of the new code. The next step is to migrate the download code to OCaml.
Sep 2013
0install 2.3.3 released. This is a minor bug-fix release, while most of the effort goes to making progress on the new OCaml version. The Zero Install Maven Integration project is now available on GitHub.
Aug 2013
0install 2.3 was released, with the new OCaml front-end to make launching apps much faster, tab completion for the Fish shell and support for relative archive paths in local feeds (this is useful for testing). 0install 2.3 for Windows was released, with a new per-user installer for use without administrator permissions. Since the release, we have been porting more of the code to OCaml: Tab-completion is now converted and therefore much more responsive. Other discussions included the announcement of an updated Firefox plugin and plans for a web-based Zero Install Market.
Jul 2013
To improve the speed of 0install, we looked at some candididate languages to replace Python: ATS, C#, Go, Haskell, OCaml, Python and Rust. See Round 1 and Round 2 for the evaluation. As a result of this, there is now an "ocaml" branch in the 0install Git repository, where a very fast OCaml front-end handles speed-critical tasks, falling back to the Python version for everything else. Please test it and let us know how it works. Partly as a result of this, the selections.xml file format is now documented.
Jun 2013
0install 2.2 released with some bugfixes and performance improvements. 0repo 0.1 and 0.2 released - this software is now being used to manage the feeds. 0release 0.15 released, providing integration with 0repo. Canonical discuss using 0install in Ubuntu. We're also looking at implementing 0install in some other language - Thoughts on a faster, smaller zeroinstall-core contains benchmarks of various proposed languages (ATS, Haskell, OCaml, Rust, C# and Python).
May 2013

0install 2.1 released: new features include the "0install search" command (to search for programs on the Internet), support for win-bash (which means that using a shell command as the 0compile build command now works on all platforms), a <remove> recipe step, a generic <binding> element (for custom bindings), support for .xz compressed Debian archives, and support for Python 3's Tulip mainloop (as an alternative to GLib). 0install 2.1 for Windows was released, including support for <file> (single-file) downloads (the non-Windows 2.1 release's <file> support is buggy; it will be fixed in 2.2).

Development has started on 0repo, a tool to make publishing and managing a collection of feeds simpler. Feedback from alpha testers welcome!

A new Maven integration service is now up and ready for testing - this provides automatically-generated 0install feeds for Maven jars (note: requires working <file> support).

Apr 2013

0install 2.0 released! [ Slashdot | OSNews | | | ]
0install 2.0 for Windows.

In other news, the new 0template tool provides an easy way to make source and binary feeds for published software. It should be easier to use than 0publish, especially for scripts. 0publish 0.24 and 0publish-gui 0.14 were released, with some bug-fixes. A proof-of-concept for supporting overlays on Linux was created.

Mar 2013
0install 1.15 and 0install 1.16 were released, adding the ability to restrict a dependency to a native or non-native version and a for-each syntax for expanding an environment variable into multiple arguments (these were needed on OS X to support Python and Java properly), and fixing a number of minor bugs in preparation for the 2.0 release. 0install 1.14.1 for Windows was released, adding the "update-apps" command and fixing some bugs. Mailing list discussions included the use of 0install as a package manager for the Felix language and the use of Vagrant VMs with 0install.
Feb 2013
0install 1.14 was released, with support for Tab-complation in bash and zsh, the new PackageKit API, a much-improved --dry-run option, and a "0install show" command to show the current selections for an app. 0alias is now deprecated and creates new-style apps instead. 0install 1.14 for Windows was released. The new 0env tool makes it easy to step into a shell session with a particular library available.
Jan 2013
0install 1.13.1 for Windows was released, fixing a few bugs. Updates commited to Git include support for the new PackageKit API and a new and improved dry-run mode, although 1.14 has not yet been released. After 1.14, 0install should enter feature-freeze until the 2.0 release. Please help us translate 0install into other languages too!
Dec 2012
0install 1.13 released, featuring improved diagnostics when a solve fails (or fails to select the expected version), support for marking different XML elements as applying to different versions of 0install (to help with backwards compatibility), new options for specifying the desired version of the program of any of its libraries (--version and --version-for) and a syntax for specifying disjoint version ranges. The naming scheme for locally-compiled packages has been improved to avoid using characters which cause trouble for cmake and other programs. 0compile 0.32 was released, with support for the new naming scheme, the ability to use the new diagnostics when compiling, and more intelligence in the autocompile logic to prevent loops. 0install 1.13 for Windows was released, adding support for custom catalog sources, sharing the cache between users, and machine-wide desktop integration.
Nov 2012
We have added much improved solver diagnostics to 0install - instead of just telling you which components it failed to select, it now explains why none of the versions was suitable. 0install 1.12.1 for Windows was released, bringing over several new features from the pure-Python version and fixing a number of bugs. Discussion about ABI annotations (e.g. for C++ programs) continued on the list.
Oct 2012
0install 1.11 for Windows (and 1.11.1) released, including support for Windows 8 and higher monitor DPI values. 0test 0.8 adds some options to make it easier to test a large collection of programs at once. A new Debian package, 0install-core, is now available for use on servers. 0install 1.12 was released, adding OS-specific dependencies, the "0install man" command, dependencies for <package-implementation>, and a bug-fix to the PackageKit support.
Sep 2012
0install 1.11 released. This version includes much improved support for detecting native Java packages (on Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, OpenSUSE and Mac OS X). The Debian package has been split into graphical and headless packages, which greatly reduces the number of dependencies needed when installing on headless servers - but we need a sponsor from Debian to approve the change. Support for Haskell packages has been improved. Interesting discussions continued about the planned <linkage>/<feature> system for supporting incompatible ABIs and about support for services. Finally, many of the 0install Git repositories have moved to our new GitHub organisation - please update your clones!
Aug 2012
0install 1.10 released. This release adds support for Python 3, PyGObject, and GTK 3 (while continuing to support Python 2, PyGTK, and GTK 2); a new directory naming scheme supports cmake and other programs that can't cope with "=" characters in pathnames; the new <restricts> element allows adding version constraints without creating a dependency; and the new <rename> recipe step allows renaming files and directories when unpacking.
Jul 2012
0install 1.9 released: new features include app support, better support for locally-compiled binaries, and improved support for Python 0install tools on Windows (e.g. 0compile). Other new releases this month include 0publish 0.21, Windows 0install 1.8 and 1.8.1, and 0compile 0.30.
Jun 2012
0install 1.8 was released, including an "Explain this decision" feature to find out why a particular version wasn't chosen, a new "POSIX" architecture (which matches everything except Windows) and per-site rate limiting for downloads. We now have a Transifex project for web-based translations. 0install 1.7.1 for Windows was released. In the Git version, we added experimental app support, which is intended to replace aliases. Apps store their selections, which means they start faster and you can see what changed after an update. The new 0downstream makes it easy to generate feeds and keep them up to date based on an existing upstream project.
May 2012
Dave Abrahams will be giving a talk: CMake, Modularization and Ryppl Developer Preview at C++Now! 2012. Ryppl aims "to create the conditions for a portable, modular C++ software ecosystem", using 0install to manage build dependencies.
0install 1.7 released [ Windows version ], adding support for Cygwin packages, the new <replaced-by> element and <command> elements for <package-implementation>s.
Apr 2012
0compile 0.27 released, with Windows support and various bugfixes and improvements. 0install 1.6.1 for Windows released, which adds new options to GUI (update policy, cache directories, trusted keys), preserves the error level when launching applications via aliases, has improved behavior of the application list when under high load, fixes the application list to work in portable mode, and does not perform update checks when no network connections are detected, as well as fixing various bugs.
Feb/Mar 2012
Windows 0install 1.5.2 and 1.5.3 were released, with a new Sync setup wizard and support for adding aliases in the GUI. 0install 1.6 was released (also for Windows) with a work-around for another Python SSL problem. On the mailing list, there was lots of discussion about using cmake with 0install (we now have an example cmake package) and dealing with incompatible ABIs for C++ programs. 0compile now works on Windows.
Jan 2012
Windows 0install versions 1.5, 1.5.1, and 1.5.2 were releaed. ArchLinux native package support was merged. There's a new Why not 0install? page, recording feedback from projects that didn't decide to use 0install. Interesting discussions on the mailing list included using 0install for a distribution's main package manager, using 0install as a plugin manager, comparing 0install and virtualenv and using 0install without a GUI.
Dec 2011
Notable releases this month include the Windows Publishing Tools (alpha), 0install 1.4.3 for Windows, and 0install 1.5.
Nov 2011
0install 1.4 for Windows released! As well as bringing the new features from 1.4 to Windows users, this also adds better Windows integration: a "My applications" list, desktop integration with start menu, file types, etc, command-line aliases (0alias), and synchronization between multiple machines (0install sync). We also created some demo packages showing how 0install can be used to manage Drupal plugins and compile Ceylon programs. If anyone is interested in taking these forward, get in touch!
Oct 2011
The Sugar project announced Sweets Zero Install based Package Management System (Sugar is a desktop environment designed for children, originally developed for the One Laptop per Child XO-1 netbook). 0install 1.4 was released, adding support for MacPorts dependencies. It also fixes a number of bugs.
Sep 2011
0install 1.3 released: downloading now uses threads, rather than sub-processes, for greater efficiency; NetworkManager 0.9 is now supported; command-specific bindings are now supported; the HTTPS connection to the key information service is now properly authenticated; and a German translation was added.
Aug 2011
There's a new guide to Using Zero Install as a plugin manager for your application, 0install 1.1.2 for Windows was released, 0compile 0.25 was released, adding support for <command> and <runner> (to specify the compile command), and a there is a new fork of 0publish with a new API.
Jul 2011
0launch 1.2 released, adding support for <executable-in-var> and <executable-in-path> bindings, faster PackageKit queries and speed improvements in the GUI for packages with many dependencies. Windows 0install 1.1.1 was released. 0install is now in the main OpenSUSE repository. There is also a new user guide.
Jun 2011
0install 1.1 released, adding support for optional dependencies, custom path separators in environment bindings and a new command for calculating digests easily. The Windows version reached 1.0. The Packaging guide has been improved and there are now a set of template projects so you can see how to use 0install with various different languages and build systems.
May 2011

Zero Install 1.0 released! [ en | de ]
Coverage on Slashdot, OSNews,
In German:, and
In Russian:
In Czech:

Windows versions 0.54.3 and 0.54.4 were released: there's now a portable version for USB sticks, better Java support, a GUI for selecting versions and a few bug fixes. There's also now a Windows version of the feed editor.

The Mac packages have been updated to 0.54.

Apr 2011
0launch 0.54 and 0launch 1.0-rc1 released. New features include an improved cache explorer, better support for running Python programs, and simpler behaviour for the Compile button. There have also been several new releases of the Windows version, which now supports background updates, self-update, and the new command-line interface. Other new releases this month include 0publish-gui 0.11, 0release 0.13, 0compile 0.24. Finally, there's a new guide for making translations.
Mar 2011
0launch 0.53 released with fewer key confirmation boxes, support for Ruby gems and an important bug-fix for the <command> support. The Mac OS X binary package is much improved. 0compile 0.23 has been released with support for compiling Java programs. Improved cache explorer and feed search features are under development.
Feb 2011
Updated the roadmap to plan for a 1.0 release this summer. There's now an (experimental) binary package for Mac OS X. New releases of 0publish, 0compile and 0export to support recent changes in 0launch and fix a few bugs.
Jan 2011
0launch 0.52 released. There's a new "0install" command providing a cleaner command-line interface, support for literal values for environment variables, more friendly default behaviour for 0alias, support for recursive <runner>s and some cleanups to the Python API. The Windows version now provides a GUI for managing the cache and support for the <command> element.
Dec 2010
0launch 0.51 released with the new command support. New releases of 0test and 0publish.
Nov 2010
The new <command> work has now been merged. This is intended to replace 'main', 'test' and similar attributes with a more flexible and generic system. It allows passing extra arguments to commands (including passing dependencies), having command-specific dependencies, and being able to specify an interpreter in a cross-platform way.
Oct 2010
A first binary of the Windows version has been released.
Sep 2010
Lots of discussion about laying an app store interface on top of Zero Install.
Aug 2010
0launch 0.50 released. The EBox security demonstration was launched, showing how to integrate Zero Install with sandboxing, allowing users to run software they don't trust fully in a restricted environment. See if you can break out of the sandbox!
Jul 2010
0launch 0.49 released, with the new PackageKit support. There's a new IronPython branch, using the .NET mainloop instead of GLib, which means fewer dependencies for Windows users. 0export 0.2 released, including a new --net-install mode. And we have a lovely new logo (shown top-left).
Jun 2010
The big news this month is the new support for PackageKit - if a Zero Install program depends on an uninstalled distribution package, Zero Install can use PackageKit to install it, using the distribution's native package manager. The new 0test now has HTML output to show the test results matrix as a colourful table.
May 2010
0launch 0.48 (and 0.47) released, with support for selecting downloads by language, support for native Slackware and FreeBSD packages as dependencies. Development of the .NET version continues.
Apr 2010
0launch 0.46 released, with the new SAT solver. Feeds for pkg-config and make are now available so they can be used as build dependencies with 0compile. Distribution integration for Gentoo and FreeBSD Ports has been added. An feed is under development.
Mar 2010
0launch 0.45 released, with support for native Gentoo packages and distribution-specific package names, better support for alternative digest algorithms and better support for pathnames on Windows. A new SAT solver has been implemented, which can select the best set of versions in every situation. The feed mirror site has been greatly upgraded, with per-user and per-site lists of feeds and rankings.
Feb 2010
The Windows version is coming along nicely - please help to test it! Also, 0export 0.1 was released; this allows easy creation of bundles for off-line distribution or archiving.
Jan 2010
0launch 0.44 released. Improvements include a progress display in console mode, support for GnuPG 2, canonicalisation of architectures and some minor bug-fixes.
Dec 2009
The Sugar project has also provided experimental PackageKit integration. now hosts Java 6 (JRE and JDK), SWT and E packages.
Nov 2009
A new Zero Install repository has been set up on to host feeds for programs where the upstream authors don't provide one. 0launch 0.43 was released, with support for xz compression, getting feeds over https and a Spanish translation.
Oct 2009
Lots of interesting discussion between Sugar Labs (One Laptop per Child) and Zero Install developers about using Zero Install to distribute Sugar Activities. The project has also offered us hosting to set up a repository for third-party packages (i.e. those where the upstream project isn't interested in providing packages of their own). Meanwhile, the project has written up some instructions for using Zero Install to deploy Grid applications. deb2zero has been merged with rpm2zero to form pkg2zero.
Sep 2009
0launch 0.42 released. The new version has better internationalisation support, and is able to look up GPG key information from a server. The default service informs you if the feed is signed by a member of the Debian project, in addition to showing information from the old database. We hope to add other trust sources in the future. Distribution integration now also works with multi-arch RPMs. libglade is no longer a dependency. The experimental Windows branch is now able to run Seamonkey.
Jul 2009
No release this month, but work includes much improved internationalisation support, support for key information servers, and support for GtkBuilder.
Jun 2009
An experimental Firefox extension for Zero Install is now available.
0compile 0.18 adds a GUI to the "autocompile" feature and introduces more support for compiling legacy source code.
May 2009
0release 0.10 automatically creates binary packages along with the source releases.
Added IdeaTorrent to track popular ideas - open for voting now!
Apr 2009
0launch 0.40 released (fixes FTP support with Python 2.6).
The new 0compile autocompile feature will download source code and build and register the binary in one go, along with any dependencies.
Mar 2009
0launch 0.39 released, with support for translations, improved background updates and better support for the RPM and Fink package managers.
Jan 2009
0launch 0.38 released, with better support for sudo, and a new "0store audit" command to check the whole cache.
The 0export command is now much improved, with a simple GUI.
Dec 2008
Peer-to-peer downloads are now supported (experimental feature).
Nov 2008
0test released; this tool can test combinations of various versions of a program and its dependencies.
Sep 2008
0launch 0.36 released, fixing some performance problems and other bugs.
Jul 2008
0export can be used to create a self-extracting "" installer, for distribution on CD, etc.
Jun 2008
GNOME and KDE integration is now much improved, with a new interface for managing applications you've added to the menu.
May 2008
The new deb2zero utility can publish a Debian package in a Zero Install feed.
Apr 2008
0launch can now fallback to using a mirror automatically. The second part of the video tutorial is now up.
Mar 2008
Zero Install interview on
Feb 2008
Zero Install 0.32 has been released, with some large-scale refactoring of the Python API and improvements to the GUI. I've also added some tutorial videos to the site.
Jan 2008
We now have a public mirror service running, providing backup copies of all known feeds.

For more information see the mailing list archives and the roadmap.


Here are some older articles about Zero Install:

Tim Berners-Lee's "Installation, Catalogs, and Caches" (DRAFT version) mentions Zero Install, too! (though the comment about needing a constant connection is wrong)


Here are some surveys on 0install: